The air war symbolised by the photographer Capa has become an icon of 20th century conflicts. At the beginning of his book on the history of aerial bombing, Thomas Hippler recalls the dropping of a bomb by hand by Italian lieutenant Giulio Gavotti on a Libyan camp on 1 November 1911. The bombings of the colonial wars therefore predate those perpetrated by the fascist armies on the Spanish population during the Civil War. This mode of warfare represents unprecedented violence. It leads to the unbridled massacre of civilian populations. However, the history of aerial bombardments has left a discreet mark on the collective memory, perhaps because the bombings of the Second World War were not all fascist. The American historian Howard Zinn, who took part in those of Royan, near Bordeaux, in 1945, has questioned their justification. But since then, they have been carried out on a massive scale in numerous conflicts, causing colossal loss of life. Their history deserves to be better known and taught, their consequences examined and an international commitment brought together to bring them to an end.